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Le Matcha contient beaucoup de Polyphénols, bénéfiques pour l'organisme. Il contient aussi de la caféine naturelle et beaucoup de molécules EGCG, qui ont un effet de ralentissement des cellules cancéreuses.

Toute la feuille de thé de Matcha est consommée, et tous les éléments sains contenus dans la plante sont donc absorbés.

J'en bois avant le sport et après le sport, je suis devenu accro au thé vert.

Attila Hildmann, le cuisinier végétalien et l’auteur de livres de cuisines, Allemagne

(n°1) Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Mediated Suppression of IgE Production By Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Allergic Asthmatic Humans.

Wu SY, Silverberg JI, Joks R, Durkin HG, Smith-Norowitz TA., Scand J Immunol. 2012 Sep;76(3):306-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2012.02729.x, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA.


Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated the suppression of immunoglobulin E (IgE) production by green tea extract (GTE) in U266 cells. However, the effects of GTE or one of its components (EGCG) on IgE production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are unknown. This study demonstrates that GTE and its major catechin, EGCG, have immunoregulatory effects on human IgE responses.

(n°2) Effects of the aqueous extract of white tea (Camellia Sinensis) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats.

Islam MS, Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec 15;19(1):25-31. Epub 2011 Jul 30, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.


White tea (WT) is very similar to green tea (GT) but it is exceptionally prepared only from the buds and young tea leaves of Camellia Sinensis plant while GT is prepared from the matured tea leaves. The present study was investigated to examine the effects of a 0.5% aqueous extract of WT in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Data of this study suggest that the 0.5% aqueous extract of WT is effective to reduce most of the diabetes associated abnormalities in a steptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats.

(n°3) Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) suppresses B cell production of IgE without inducing apoptosis.

Hassanain E, Silverberg JI, Norowitz KB, Chice S, Bluth MH, Brody N, Joks R, Durkin HG, Smith-Norowitz TA., Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2010 Spring;40(2):135-43, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA


Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) is known to possess biological properties that are antioxidative and antimutagenic. Recent studies demonstrated beneficial effects of green tea in inflammatory allergy. However, the effect of green tea on anti-allergic activity/IgE responses in vitro has not been studied. The suppression was dose-dependent with the highest concentrations resulting in the greatest suppression. The suppression of IgE production by green tea extract was not mediated by apoptosis or cell death. This study demonstrates that green tea extract has immunoregulatory effects on human IgE responses in vitro.

(n°4) Study on the theraputic effect of plants of Camellia genus on osteoporosis

Tang L, Feng BM, Shi LY, Wu XJ, Shi HB, Miao YB, Wang YQ, Zhong Yao Cai. 2008 Oct;31(10):1540-4, Dalian University, Dalian, China.


To observe anti-osteoporotic effect of Plants of Camellia genus induced by retinoic acid in rats, in adqulis crude drug dosage, and to compare activities of them. The results of this study indicated that effects of ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica on anti-osteoporosis with retinoic acid were the strongest. Ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica , ethanol extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera, and aqueous extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera were stronger than positive control drug. The other extracts didnt show obvious anti-osteoporotic effects. Eventually the strength order of each group on anti-osteoporosis was as following: ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica > ethanol extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera > aqueous extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera > aqueous extracts of seed from Camellia Oleifera > positive control drug > aqueous extracts of seed from Camellia Japonica. Plants of Camellia genus have different degree anti-osteoporosis effect, which can offer significant theory basis for progressive investigation and exploitation of them.

(n° 5) Phenolic antioxidants identified by ESI-MS from Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) and green tea (Camellia Sinensis) extracts.

Bastos DH, Saldanha LA, Catharino RR, Sawaya AC, Cunha IB, Carvalho PO, Eberlin MN, Molecules. 2007 Mar 12;12(3):423-32, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil.


Aqueous extracts of green yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) and green tea (Camellia Sinensis) are good sources of phenolic antioxidants, as already described in the literature. The subject of this study were organic extracts from yerba maté, both green and roasted, and from green tea. Organic extracts containing phenolic antioxidants might be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry, replacing the synthetic phenolic additives used nowadays. The ether extracts from green and roasted yerba maté displayed a weak scavenging activity, different from the behavior observed for the green tea ether extract. The main phenolic compounds identified in green yerba maté water and ethanolic extracts were: caffeic acid, quinic acid, caffeoyl glucose, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and rutin. After the roasting process two new compounds were formed: caffeoylshikimic acid and dicaffeoylshikimic acid. The ethanolic extracts from yerba maté, both roasted and green, with lower content of phenolic compounds (3.80 and 2.83 mg/mL) presented high antioxidant activity and even at very low phenolic concentrations, ether extract from GT (0.07 mg/mL) inhibited DPPH over 90%.

(n°6) Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models.

Chen BT, Li WX, He RR, Li YF, Tsoi B, Zhai YJ, Kurihara H., Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:537923. Epub 2012 Jul 30., Jinan University, Guangzhou, China


While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia Sinensis) flowers were investigated. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food.

(n° 7) Green tea extract: Possible mechanism and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens.

Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Dang S, Gabrani R., Food Chem. 2012 Nov 15;135(2):672-5. Epub 2012 May 11., Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India.


Camellia Sinensis (tea) is known for its therapeutic properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidative and anti-ageing). Although, anti-microbial properties of green tea have been studied, its role against bacterial strains related to skin infections and mechanism of action is not well understood. We focussed on exploring anti-microbial activity and the basic mechanism of aqueous green tea leaf extract on selected bacterial strains. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacterium linens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were found to be sensitive to green tea extract via disc diffusion assay (zone of inhibition ⩾7mm). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined via nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay (0.156-0.313mg/ml). Moreover, the aqueous extract was found to be not toxic to the Vero cell-line up to a concentration of 500μg/ml. The effect of aqueous extract on adhesion of different bacteria to Vero cells indicated that it inhibits the adhesion at its MIC value.

(n° 8) Novel approaches to chemoprevention of skin cancer.

Bickers DR, Athar M., J Dermatol. 2000 Nov;27(11):691-5., Columbia Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA.


Protection against sun-induced damage leading to photocarcinogenesis in skin is a highly desirable goal. Among various strategies, chemopreventive approaches utilizing non-toxic agents to prevent the occurrence of precancerous lesions or their surrogate markers are potentially attractive. Epidemiological and experimental studies provide evidence that some naturally occurring chemical agents in the human diet can diminish cancer risk. Aside from water, tea is the most common beverage consumed worldwide. Black tea accounts for nearly 80% of total tea production. Black tea and green tea are derived from the same plant, Camellia Sinensis. Green tea contains monomeric polyphenols known as flavanols and black tea contains dimeric flavanols and polymeric polyphenols known as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs). In summary, these studies indicate that tea extracts are effective in reducing UVB- and PUVA-mediated DNA damage, expression of early response genes and early inflammatory changes in skin. These studies verify a conceptual rationale for employing naturally occurring dietary constitutents as an approach to cancer chemoprevention.

(n° 9) Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Teas Prepared from Medicinal Plants, Morus alba L., Camellia Sinensis L. and Cudrania tricuspidata and Their Volatile Components.

Nam S, Jang HW, Shibamoto T., Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 7.


The antioxidant activity of essences of teas prepared from mulberry (Morus alba L.), Camellia Sinensis L., and Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Burea plant was examined using two antioxidant assays. These results suggest that consumption of antioxidant-rich beverages prepared from these plants may be beneficial to human health.

(n° 10) Green tea extract: Possible mechanism and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens.

Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Dang S, Gabrani R., Food Chem. 2012 Nov 15;135(2):672-5. Epub 2012 May 11., Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India.


Camellia Sinensis (tea) is known for its therapeutic properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidative and anti-ageing). Although, anti-microbial properties of green tea have been studied, its role against bacterial strains related to skin infections and mechanism of action is not well understood. We focussed on exploring anti-microbial activity and the basic mechanism of aqueous green tea leaf extract on selected bacterial strains. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacterium linens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were found to be sensitive to green tea extract via disc diffusion assay (zone of inhibition ⩾7mm). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined via nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay (0.156-0.313mg/ml). Moreover, the aqueous extract was found to be not toxic to the Vero cell-line up to a concentration of 500μg/ml. The effect of aqueous extract on adhesion of different bacteria to Vero cells indicated that it inhibits the adhesion at its MIC value.

(n° 11) Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress.

Yokozawa T, Noh JS, Park CH., Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:845917. Epub 2012 Jul 10., University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.


Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia Sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

(n° 12) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of green tea and black tea: A comparative in vitro study.

Chatterjee P, Chandra S, Dey P, Bhattacharya S., J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2012 Apr;3(2):136-8., Bengal School of Technology, West Bengal, India.


The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extracts of green tea and black tea leaves (Camellia Sinensis) against the denaturation of protein in vitro. From the present findings it can be concluded that both green and black tea leaves possessed a marked anti-inflammatory effect against the denaturation of protein, in vitro. Green tea was found to be more active than black tea, plausibly due to the higher flavonoid contents of green tea.

(n° 13) Natural products: A safest approach for obesity.

Vasudeva N, Yadav N, Sharma SK., Chin J Integr Med. 2012 Jun;18(6):473-80. Epub 2012 Jul 22., University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India


Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia Sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity.

(n° 14) L-Theanine promotes nitric oxide production in endothelial cells through eNOS phosphorylation.

Siamwala JH, Dias PM, Majumder S, Joshi MK, Sinkar VP, Banerjee G, Chatterjee S., J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jul 20, Anna University, Chennai, India.


Consumption of tea (Camellia Sinensis) improves vascular function and is linked to lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial nitric oxide is the key regulator of vascular functions in endothelium. The results of our experiments are suggestive of l-theanine mediated vascular health benefits of tea.

(n° 15) Tea consumption is inversely associated with weight status and other markers for metabolic syndrome in US adults.

Vernarelli JA, Lambert JD., Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jul 10, The Pennsylvania State University, USA,


Tea (Camellia Sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed. These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data, which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS.

(n° 16) Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts.

Hiraganahalli BD, Chinampudur VC, Dethe S, Mundkinajeddu D, Pandre MK, Balachandran J, Agarwal A., Pharmacogn Mag. 2012 Apr;8(30):116-23., R and D Centre, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India.


Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia Sinensis, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, and Acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress.We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the standardized herbal extracts against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) induced toxicity and their mechanism of hepatoprotective action in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant property as evident by the Trolox values and effective scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The extracts also demonstrated inhibition of AAPH-induced fluorescence in HepG2 cells. These results indicate the ability of the plant extracts to protect the liver cells from chemical-induced damage, which might be correlated to their radical scavenging potential.This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential, which might occur by reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage.

(n° 17) Medicinal flowers. XXXIII. Anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of chakasaponins I-III and structure of chakasaponin IV from flower buds of Chinese tea plant (Camellia Sinensis).

Matsuda H, Hamao M, Nakamura S, Kon'i H, Murata M, Yoshikawa M., Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.


Effects of principal saponins, chakasaponins I-III, from the flower buds of Camellia Sinensis cultivated in Fujian province, China on plasma triglyceride (TG) and glucose levels in olive oil or sucrose-loaded mice were examined. Chakasaponins I-III at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited increases in plasma TG and glucose levels. Furthermore, they prevented gastric emptying, suggesting that the former inhibitory effect is partly dependent on the inhibition of gastric emptying. In addition, the chemical structure of a new acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, chakasaponin IV, was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

(n° 18) Triterpene saponins with hyaluronidase inhibitory activity from the seeds of Camellia Sinensis.

Myose M, Warashina T, Miyase T., Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60(5):612-23, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.


The MeOH extract of the seeds of Camellia Sinensis (L.) KUNTZE gave twelve new saponins (1-12) along with ten known saponins (13-22). These saponins (1-22) showed stronger hyaluronidase inhibitory activity than the positive control, rosmarinic acid.

(n° 19) Herb-drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews.

Posadzki P, Watson L, Ernst E., Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Jun 1. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04350.x. [Epub ahead of print]


The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to critically evaluate the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for ginkgo biloba, panax ginseng, piper methysticum, serenoa repens and camellia Sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions.

(n° 20) Effect of green tea extract on reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils from cancer patients.

Suzuki K, Ohno S, Suzuki Y, Ohno Y, Okuyama R, Aruga A, Yamamoto M, Ishihara KO, Nozaki T, Miura S, Yoshioka H, Mori Y., Anticancer Res. 2012 Jun;32(6):2369-75, Waseda University, Saitama, Japan.


Oxidative stress in cancer patients has been demonstrated to be partly mediated by neutrophils. Although it is reported that natural antioxidants, such as green tea extract, reduce oxidative stress, there is limited evidence of their effects in cancer patients. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from eighteen patients with advanced cancer. Green tea extract was added to the blood samples with luminol on Mebiol gel, and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was measured to monitor the production of reactive oxygen species from migrated neutrophils into the gel, at 37°C. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was significantly down-regulated in the presence of green tea extract in a concentration-dependent manner.These results indicate the antioxidant effect of green tea extract on reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils, which may be effective in reducing oxidative stress in cancer patients.

(n° 21) Changes in skin mechanical properties after long-term application of cream containing green tea extract.

Mahmood T, Akhtar N, Khan BA, Shoaib Khan HM, Saeed T., Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011 Oct-Dec;23(5-6):333-6., The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan


We studied longterm application of cream containing green tea extract, to obtain knowledge of its effects on epidermal mechanics by 2-mm diameter Cutometer probe. Using this non-invasive device, we assessed the effects of green tea extract cream on skin mechanical properties. Healthy male volunteers (n=10) were included in this study, which lasted 60 days. Statistically significant (p<0.05) results were notable for the R6 (Uv/Ue) parameter with respect to time (ANOVA); R0, R2 (Ua/Uf) and R7 (Ur/Uf) parameters were found statistically not significant by ANOVA. This study demonstrates that green tea formulation has a certain effect on R6 (Uv/Ue) parameter when applied regularly for a certain period of time. These results indicate that the formulation has no pronounced overall effects on skin elastic or biological properties, but significant R6 (Uv/Ue) values indicate that it does have definite effects on the viscoelastic properties of the skin.

(n° 22) A review of phytotherapy of acne vulgaris: Perspective of new pharmacological treatments.

Azimi H, Fallah-Tafti M, Khakshur AA, Abdollahi M., Fitoterapia. 2012 Apr 10.


This review focuses on plants currently used and those with a high potency for the future development of anti-acne products. Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-androgen effects were the key outcomes. Studies on cell lines revealed that flavonoid, alkaloid, essential oil, phenol and phenolic compound, tannin, xanthone and xanthone derivative, and the bisnaphthquione derivative are effective in treatment of acne. Animal studies showed that diterpene acid, phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside and flavonoids have anti-inflammatory activity. Eleven human studies revealed that Camellia Sinensis has 5α-reductase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities. Also anti-bacterial effect was shown by oleoresin of Commiphora mukul. In addition to the standardization of these herbs, screening herbs as anti-acne agents may help to find new sources of therapy for acne.

(n° 23) Exposure to specific herbal products during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight.

Moussally K, Berard A., Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;18(2):36-43., Ste-Justine Research Center, Montreal.


Despite the fact that herbal products (HP) are used frequently during gestation worldwide, studies indicate that they may not be free of danger for fetuses. Evidence about the safety of HP use during pregnancy and their impact on pregnancy outcomes is currently lacking. To quantify the association between HP use during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy (≥15 weeks of gestation [WG]) and more specifically, between use of chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), flax (Linum usitatissimum), peppermint (M. balsamea), or green tea (Camellia Sinensis) (alone or in combination with other HPs) and the risk of low birth weight (LBW). Cases were defined as women who delivered a newborn <2500g and controls as women who delivered a newborn ≥2500g. After adjusting for potential confounders, no statistically significant associations were found between the use of any HP during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy and the risk of LBW, or between the use of flax, chamomile, peppermint, or green tea (alone or in combination with other HPs) during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy and the risk of LBW. HP use during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy and more specifically, use of flax, chamomile, peppermint, or green tea alone or in combination with other HPs did not significantly increase the risk of LBW.

(n° 24) The effects of green tea polyphenols on drug metabolism.

Yang CS, Pan E., Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012 Jun;8(6):677-89. Epub 2012 Apr 18., The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.


Tea, made from the dried leaves of the plant Camellia Sinensis Theaceae, is a very popular beverage consumed worldwide. Recently, green tea extract-based dietary supplements have also been widely consumed for the acclaimed beneficial health effects, such as weight reduction. Although tea consumption is considered to be innocuous, the potential interactions between tea polyphenols and drugs have been demonstrated in studies in vitro and in vivo. Tea catechins may bind to certain drugs to affect their absorption and bioactivities. Tea catechins may inhibit the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters or affect the expression of these proteins, either upregulation or downregulation. Although these effects have been demonstrated in studies in vitro and in animal models, such effects have only been observed in limited cases in humans at common doses of human tea consumption. The ingestion of tea catechins from dietary supplements, which could be in large bullet doses, may produce more profound effects on drug metabolism, and such effects with drugs need to be further investigated.

(n° 25) Evaluation of the antiviral activity of a green tea solution as a hand-wash disinfectant.

Shin WJ, Kim YK, Lee KH, Seong BL., Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(3):581-4, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.


Based on the broad-spectrum antiviral effect of green tea catechins, we established an experimental skin contact model for influenza virus transmission and evaluated the use of a green tea solution as a first-hand disinfectant. The infectivity of the virus on the skin cell layer became obsolete when washed with the green tea solution. The skin contact model could be applied to develop non-pharmaceutical intervention measures for reducing human transmission of the influenza virus.

(n° 26) Effects of Ilex latifolia and Camellia Sinensis on Cholesterol and Circulating Immune Complexes in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet.

Luo XY, Li NN, Liang YR., Phytother Res. 2012 Mar 26. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4693., Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China


Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Ilex latifolia or green tea (Camellia Sinensis) on the levels of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. We demonstrated that daily administration by gavage of I. latifolia or C. Sinensis at doses of 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol levels and circulating immune complexes and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet compared with levels in the high-cholesterol diet control group. C. Sinensis was more effective than I. latifolia. I. latifolia and C. Sinensis could be used as food supplements to protect against the development of hypercholesterolaemia.

(n° 27) Health-promoting effects of green tea.

Suzuki Y, Miyoshi N, Isemura M., Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2012;88(3):88-101, Nagoya Keizai University, Inuyama, Japan.


Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia Sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings.

(n° 28) L: -Theanine extends lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans.

Zarse K, Jabin S, Ristow M., Eur J Nutr. 2012 Sep;51(6):765-8. Epub 2012 Mar 16., University of Jena, Jena, Germany.


Compounds that delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest to anti-aging medicine, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to promote healthy lifespan in humans. We here aimed to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of L: -theanine, a putative anti-cancer, anti-obesity, blood pressure-lowering, and neuroprotective compound contained in green tea (Camellia Sinensis), are capable of extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans roundworms were maintained on agar plates, were fed E. coli strain OP50 bacteria, and L: -theanine was applied to agar to test (1) whether it may increase survival upon paraquat exposure and (2) whether it may promote longevity by quantifying survival in the presence and absence of the compound. L: -theanine increases survival of C. elegans in the presence of paraquat at a concentration of 1 micromolar. L: -theanine extends C. elegans lifespan when applied at concentrations of 100 nM, as well as 1 and 10 micromolar. In the model organism C. elegans, L: -theanine is capable of promoting paraquat resistance and longevity suggesting that this compound may as well promote healthy lifespan in mammals and possibly humans.

(n° 29) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by green and white tea and their simulated intestinal metabolites.

Okello EJ, Leylabi R, McDougall GJ., Food Funct. 2012 Mar 14, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.


By 2034 it is forecast that 5% of the global population will be aged 85 years or over-approximately two and half fold increase on present day figures-which will inevitably lead to an increase in age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. There is mounting evidence that green tea (Camellia Sinensis) possesses numerous health-promoting properties, and may potentially be beneficial to those suffering from Alzheimer's and other diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. These beneficial properties are largely attributed to the high polyphenol content, particularly the catechins. Overall, the results indicate that further research is necessary to determine the full potential of digestion of tea and its metabolites and how inter-individual variation may indicate that some sections of society could potentially benefit more from drinking tea as a strategy to prevent the development of dementia. We have also shown the activities of a number of metabolites, however, further research is required to determine their potential bioavailability.

(n° 30) Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

Sundararajan S, Prudente A, Bankston JD, King JM, Wilson P, Sathivel S., J Food Sci. 2011 Sep;76(7):E511-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02283.x., Louisiana State Univ Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, USA.


Solutions of green tea (Camellia Sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp.
(n° 31) Evaluation of antitumour activity of tea carbohydrate polymers in hepatocellular carcinoma animals.

(n° 31) Evaluation of antitumour activity of tea carbohydrate polymers in hepatocellular carcinoma animals.

Chen B, Zhou W, Ning M, Wang Z, Zou L, Zhang H, Wang Q., Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 May 1;50(4):1103-8. Epub 2012 Mar 8., Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the General Hosptal of NingXia Medical University, Ningxia, PR China.


Box-Behnken design criterion was applied to identify the significant effects of various extraction parameters such as temperature, time, and solvent-solid ratio on extraction of tea carbohydrate. Among the three variables tested extraction temperature, and solvent-solid ratio were found to have significant effect on tea carbohydrate extraction. The most suitable condition for extraction of tea carbohydrate was found to be a single step extraction at extraction temperature 90°C, extraction time 30 min, and solvent-solid ratio 5:1. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by the injection of 1×10(5) H22 hepatocarcinoma cells into right hind thigh muscle in experimental animals. Tea carbohydrate could inhibit tumour growth and decrease microvessel density in tumour tissue. The altered amount of serum white blood cells (WBC), Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in HCC animals were dose-dependently increased, whereas activities of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were dose-dependently decreased in the drug treated animals. In addition, tea carbohydrate administration could decrease expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in H22 tumor tissue. It can be concluded that tea carbohydrate displayed strong antitumour activity in animals.

(n° 32) Tea catechins and flavonoids from the leaves of Camellia Sinensis inhibit yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

Manir MM, Kim JK, Lee BG, Moon SS., Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 Apr 1;20(7):2376-81. Epub 2012 Feb 9, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea.


Four new quercetin acylglycosides, designated camelliquercetisides A-D, quercetin 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)][2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (17), quercetin 3-O-[2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (18), quercetin 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)][2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-d-glucoside (19), and quercetin 3-O-[2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (20), together with caffeine and known catechins, and flavonoids (1-16) were isolated from the leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HR-TOF-MS) and chemical methods. The catechins and flavonoidal glycosides exhibited yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitory activities in the range of IC(50) 8.0-70.3μM, and radical scavenging activities in the range of IC(50) 1.5-43.8 μM, measured by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical.

(n° 33) Epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate content in various tea cultivars (Camellia Sinensis L.) and its in vitro inhibitory effect on histamine release.

Maeda-Yamamoto M, Ema K, Monobe M, Tokuda Y, Tachibana H., J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Mar 7;60(9):2165-70. Epub 2012 Feb 27, National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, Kanaya, Shizuoka, Japan.


It has been reported that epigallocatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and the EGCG3″Me-rich green tea ( Camellia Sinensis L.) cultivar 'Benifuuki' exhibit antiallergic effects. At a dose of 50 μg/mL, the rank order of histamine release inhibition was observed to be epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3″Me) > gallocatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (GCG3″Me) > EGCG3″Me > gallocatechin-gallate (GCG) > catechin-gallate (CG) > EGCG > epicatechin-gallate (ECG) > epigallocatechin (EGC) > gallocatechin (GC). Of the various tea cultivars analyzed by HPLC, the greatest content of ECG3″Me was found in the third crop of 'Benifuuki' (1.05% dry weight). Moreover, ECG3″Me content was positively correlated with EGCG3″Me content in 'Benifuuki' tea leaves. In an assay of mixtures of ECG3″Me and EGCG3″Me, inhibitory activity (50 μg/mL in total) was increased as the content of ECG3″Me increased. This suggests that ECG3″Me might link to the antiallergic effect of 'Benifuuki' tea, as has been reported for EGCG3″Me.

(n° 34) Effect of green tea extract on body weight, serum glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A dose response study.

Haidari F, Shahi MM, Zarei M, Rafiei H, Omidian K., Saudi Med J. 2012 Feb;33(2):128-33., Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.


To examine the effect of green tea extract on body weight, serum levels of glucose, and lipids in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of green tea extract caused a significant decrease in serum glucose and total cholesterol levels and significantly improved the body weight loss in diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg green tea in comparison to diabetic control group. No significant changes were observed in triglyceride (p=0.04), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.000), and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p=0.01) following intervention. It appears that green tea extract had both antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolmic effects in diabetic rats, although further work is needed to determine their mechanism.

(n° 35) Green tea extract alleviates arsenic-induced biochemical toxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats.

Messarah M, Saoudi M, Boumendjel A, Kadeche L, Boulakoud MS, El Feki A., Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Feb 2., Badji Mokhtar University, Algeria.


The present work was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GT, Camellia Sinensis) leaves against arsenic (NaAsO(2))-induced biochemical toxicity and lipid peroxidation production in experimental rats. The treatment with arsenic exhibited a significant increase in some serum hepatic and renal biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, cholesterol, urea and creatinine). To conclude, our data suggest that arsenic exposure enhanced an oxidative stress by disturbing the tissue antioxidant defense system, but the GT co-administration alleviates the toxicity induced by arsenic exposure.

(n° 36) Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Motility and Penetrability of Frozen-Thawed Boar Spermatozoa Incubated in the Fertilization Medium.

Kaedei Y, Naito M, Naoi H, Sato Y, Taniguchi M, Tanihara F, Kikuchi K, Nagai T, Otoi T., Reprod Domest Anim. 2012 Feb 2. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.01984.x. , The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Ibaraki, Japan.


Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia Sinensis) and is known for its antioxidant effects. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of EGCG during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the sperm quality and penetrability into oocytes. Our results indicate that motility and penetrability of boar spermatozoa are improved by co-incubation with 50μm EGCG, but the effects vary with individual boars.

(n° 37) Isolation and identification of spermidine derivatives in tea (Camellia Sinensis) flowers and their distribution in floral organs.

Yang Z, Dong F, Baldermann S, Murata A, Tu Y, Asai T, Watanabe N., J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Aug 15;92(10):2128-32. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5596. Epub 2012 Feb 1, Shizuoka University, Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Japan.


Recently, tea (Camellia Sinensis) flowers have attracted increasing interest because of their content of bioactive compounds such as catechins. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of some characteristic compounds in tea flowers. This study has provided the first evidence that spermidine-phenolic acid conjugates occur in tea flowers in considerable amounts. Their presence should prompt a reconsideration of the ecological role of tea flowers. From an economic point of view, tea flowers might be suitable as a raw material in the healthcare food and pharmaceutical industries.

(n° 38) Nutrition strategies to improve physical capabilities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Davoodi J, Markert CD, Voelker KA, Hutson SM, Grange RW., Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2012 Feb;23(1):187-99, xii-xiii. Epub 2011 Dec 13, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.


There is no current cure for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and palliative and prophylactic interventions to improve the quality of life of patients remain limited, with the exception of corticosteroids. This article describes 2 potential nutritional interventions for the treatment of DMD, green tea extract (GTE) and the branched-chain amino acid leucine, and their positive effects on physical activity. Both GTE and leucine are suitable for human consumption, are easily tolerated with no side effects, and, with appropriate preclinical data, could be brought forward to clinical trials rapidly.

(n° 39) Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.

Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Pollack AZ, Zhang C, Ye A, Stanford JB, Hammoud AO, Porucznik CA, Wactawski-Wende J., Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;95(2):488-97. Epub 2012 Jan 11., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, USA.


Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race.

(n° 40) Potential role of green tea catechins in various disease therapies: progress and promise.

Mak JC., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012 Mar;39(3):265-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2012.05673.x, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.


Green tea (from the plant Camellia Sinensis), a beverage whose consumption started 5000 years ago in China, has important biological and pharmacological properties. The beneficial effects of green tea have been attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds that are powerful anti-oxidants and free iron scavengers. Of all the catechins found in green tea, namely (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), EGCG is the most abundant and powerful. It is widely believed that green tea may protect against death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease and stroke) owing to the presence of catechins associated with green tea consumption. Other health benefits include various types of cancer chemoprevention, weight loss and protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease). Although most of the studies have shown benefits with two to three cups of green tea per day, the optimal dose has not yet been established to enable any solid conclusions to be drawn regarding the various health benefits of green tea or its constituents in humans. With Phase I trials providing information on the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of EGCG, the window of opportunity is wider to undertake well-controlled long-term human studies to enable a full understanding of the protective effects of green tea catechins on various parameters in different settings.

(n° 41) The Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) and Commercial Rooibos and Green Tea Supplements on Epididymal Sperm in Oxidative Stress-induced Rats.

Awoniyi DO, Aboua YG, Marnewick J, Brooks N., Phytother Res. 2012 Aug;26(8):1231-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3717. Epub 2012 Jan 7, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many physiological functions of mammalian sperm. Numerous endogenous antioxidants belonging to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic groups can remove excess ROS and prevent oxidative stress (OS). This study compares the modulation of OS by rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat sperm. Catalase activity was significantly higher in the sperm of rats consuming fermented rooibos, 'green' rooibos and both the rooibos and green tea supplements. Superoxide dismutase concentration in the sperm of rats supplemented with fermented rooibos, 'green' rooibos and green tea was higher. Sperm glutathione levels of rats consuming the fermented and 'green' rooibos were also significantly higher. Rooibos fermented and 'green' rooibos showed a tendency to lower the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. In conclusion, both rooibos extracts could offer a measure of protection against induced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant defence mechanisms and thereby improving the sperm quality and function.

(n° 42) Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

Joukar S, Bashiri H, Dabiri S, Ghotbi P, Sarveazad A, Divsalar K, Joukar F, Abbaszadeh M., J Physiol Biochem. 2012 Jun;68(2):271-9. Epub 2012 Jan 7., Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.


The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

(n° 43) Black tea (Camellia Sinensis) decoction shows immunomodulatory properties on an experimental animal model and in human peripheral mononuclear cells.

Chattopadhyay C, Chakrabarti N, Chatterjee M, Mukherjee S, Sarkar K, Chaudhuri AR., Pharmacognosy Res. 2012 Jan;4(1):15-21, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.


Black tea (Camellia Sinensis) has been used as a daily beverage for time immemorial. Immunomodulatory effects of tea are recognized as it stimulates the proliferation of cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-inflammatory effects of tea have also been depicted in the available literature. Therefore, we designed this study to examine the potential immunemodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of black tea in a rat model and in human peripheral mononuclear cells. The purpose of the study was to determine (1) evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of black tea on rats, (2) evaluation of immunemodulator effects of black tea on rats, and (3) evaluation of immunemodulator effects of black tea on human peripheral mononuclear cells. Black tea decoction (10% and 20%) strength has shown significant anti-inflammatory effects (64.8% and 77% reduction, respectively), on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models (rat paw edema) which can be comparable with the standard drug indomethacin (89.1%). In a chronic anti-inflammatory model, black tea decoction (10% and 20%) has shown significant suppressive effects on rat paw edema (38.56% and 69.53%) observed on 21(st) day. Lymphoproliferative action of tea was evaluated on human peripheral mononuclear cells using an MTT assay where the number of living cells were expressed in terms of optical density at 570 nm. An experiment has shown that black tea increases the maximum number of T-lymphocytes at 72 h with a maximum strength of 20%. Maximum number of viable cells (T-lymphocytes) was observed with black tea at 20% strength at 72 h. The results were expressed as mean ± SD, and the significance was evaluated by Student's t-test versus control, with P < 0.05 implying significance. Taken together, our data indicate that black tea has potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action and this corroborates with the current trend of tea being promoted as a 'health drink'.

(n° 44) Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia Sinensis.

Chan EW, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP., Pharmacognosy Res. 2011 Oct;3(4):266-72., UCSI University, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia Sinensis were investigated. Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. Sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

(n° 45) Preventive effects of green tea (Camellia Sinensis var. assamica) on diabetic nephropathy.

Kang MY, Park YH, Kim BS, Seo SY, Jeong BC, Kim JI, Kim HH., Yonsei Med J. 2012 Jan;53(1):138-44. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2012.53.1.138, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.


This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of Camellia Sinensis var. assamica (CSVA) on diabetic nephropathy in in vitro and in vivo models. MDCK cells were incubated with 1 mM of oxalate with or without different concentrations of CSVA, then MTT and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were performed to investigate the preventive effects of CSVA on oxalate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. As CSVA concentrations increased, viable MDCK cells increased in concentration. MDA production decreased over time in the CSVA treated group. The creatinine clearance of group 3 was lower than those of groups 1 and 2. The amount of urine microalbumin and protein in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3. Also, more glomerulus basement membrane foot processes were preserved in groups 2 and 3. In conclusion, CSVA has beneficial preventive tendencies towards diabetic nephropathy in both in vitro and in vivo models.

(n° 46) Tea polyphenols inhibit rat osteoclast formation and differentiation.

Oka Y, Iwai S, Amano H, Irie Y, Yatomi K, Ryu K, Yamada S, Inagaki K, Oguchi K., J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118(1):55-64. Epub 2011 Dec 21, Showa University School of Medicine, Japan.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in degeneration of the matrix associated with bone and cartilage. Regulation of osteoclast activity is essential in the treatment of bone disease, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Polyphenols in green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibit MMPs expression and activity. However, the effects of the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on osteoclast and MMP activity are unknown. Therefore, we examined whether TFDG and EGCG affect MMP activity and osteoclast formation and differentiation in vitro. TFDG or EGCG (10 and 100 µM) was added to cultures of rat osteoclast precursors cells and mature osteoclasts. Numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and actin rings decreased in polyphenol-treated cultures relative to control cultures. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were lower in TFDG- and EGCG-treated rat osteoclast precursor cells than in control cultures. MMP-9 mRNA levels declined significantly in TFDG-treated osteoclasts in comparison to control osteoclasts. TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and E

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